Paul Thienphrapa

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Hi! I am a computer vision and robotics scientist-engineer leading the AI/ML ventures at a health tech startup. Previously I was a senior scientist at Philips Healthcare and did a PhD in computer science at Johns Hopkins University. I've built a self-guided snake robot for heart surgery! I also helped co-create the da Vinci Research Kit and revealed hard-earned lessons on medical robotics.

Russell H. Taylor, Paul Thienphrapa, and Tutkun Sen build a surgical robot
Photo by Will Kirk / Johns Hopkins University

Contact info
find me on linkedin
first.last at mepaul.com
pault at cs.jhu.edu (historical)

Background

My favorite professional highlights include the end-to-end engineering of robust, real-time systems, combining the ingenuity of multiple disciplines to solve meaningful problems. I am broadly passionate about innovative solutions, systems, and components that emerge from technical, clinical, and practical insights. This has given me rare opportunities to design and build complex systems such as dexterous surgical robots, computer vision + AI/ML guidance systems, and smart navigation via medical images.

Meanwhile, these are some of the many mentors that have guided my journey:

  • Russell H. Taylor, Johns Hopkins University, international celebrity pioneer of medical robotics, who showed me that being the best is fleeting, but persistently improving is real
  • Peter Kazanzides, Johns Hopkins University, inventor of the first-ever active surgical robot, who helped me realize that a system is way more than just the sum of its parts
  • Aleksandra Popovic, Philips Research, my industry advisor and mentor, who developed my love of transforming ambiguous theory into practical realities that help people

Education

  • PhD, Computer Science | Surgical Robotics & Vision
    Johns Hopkins University
    Snake robot for cardiac surgery with 3D ultrasound vision (with R. Taylor, P. Kazanzides, A. Popovic)
  • MSE, Computer Science | Embedded Systems
    Johns Hopkins University
    Open source robot control platform over high speed networks (with P. Kazanzides)
  • MS, Electrical Engineering | Embedded Systems (pending thesis)
    California State University, Los Angeles
    Reconfigurable, fault-tolerant embedded system for space telescope control (with C. Liu)
  • BS, Electrical & Computer Engineering
    California Institute of Technology

Experience

  • Director, Head of Computer Vision (2 years)
    ^Principal Computer Vision Scientist (1 year)
    Atlas5D, Cambridge, MA
    • Develop unique machine learning techniques for contact-free health sensing, bringing offline prototypes to international commercial deployment in 4 months
    • Lead development of deep learning algorithms for fast, competitive computer vision capabilities with live upgrades
    • Build cloud infrastructure to automatically train on live data and scale novel AI models to commodity edge platforms
  • Senior Robotics Research Scientist (2 years)
    ^Robotics Research Scientist (4 years)
    Philips Innovation Center, Cambridge, MA
    • Design surgical navigation systems with robotics, computer vision, medical image guidance
    • Collaborate on diverse teams with technical experts, clinicians, and business units [2 awards]
    • Engineer prototypes, report to stakeholders on analysis, competitive landscape, and IP [20+]
    • Publish breakthroughs in visualization, workflow, and UX - peer-reviewed and presented at top-tier conferences ICRA and MICCAI
  • Robotics and Computer Vision Engineer (4 summers + 1 winter as intern)
    Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, NY
    • Design image guidance algorithms for surgical robots via ultrasound and endoscopy
    • Develop software for closed-loop robotics, visual servo control, tracking, and navigation
  • Research Assistant (5 years as PhD student)
    Johns Hopkins University (ERC-CISST/LCSR), Baltimore, MD
    • Engineer sophisticated, 11-DoF, miniature snake robots for beating heart surgery
    • Devise and analyze smart strategies for safe robot control in the heart using 3D ultrasound
    • Architect the original framework (electronics, FPGA/firmware, software/API) leading to the da Vinci Research Kit (dvrk), an open source motion controller now used as a standard platform for surgical robotics research across 40+ institutions worldwide
    • Mentor students, evaluate projects, and review assignments in surgical systems courses
  • Software Engineer (1 summer as co-op, 1.5 years as full-time contractor)
    Sierra Monolithics (Broadband Wireless and Optical Circuits), Redondo Beach, CA
    • Lead process automation in a rapidly growing semiconductor startup to successful acquisition
    • Automate ASIC test protocols, optimize instrument triggers, and streamline report generation
    • Collaborate with OEM partners to create intuitive user interfaces for novel, complex circuitry
  • Research Assistant (2.5 years as master's student)
    California State University, Los Angeles, NASA SPACE Engineering Lab
    • Develop multiprocessor architecture prototypes using parallel programming and IPC
    • Project 1: Fault-tolerant embedded computing to control a segmented space telescope
    • Project 2: High volume and robust astronomical image processing and transmission
  • Software Engineer (1 summer as intern, 1+ years as freelance contractor)
    Unified Dispatch, Altadena, CA
    • Design and develop first-gen mobile GPS app for transit drivers
    • Enable safe navigation with speech UI and fare processing
    • Create frenzy at trade shows leading to startup acquisition

Note: Most of the above experiences *overlap* with adjacent ones, for those keeping track.

Projects

Computer vision, AI/ML, & robotics

Snake robot with 3D ultrasound guidance for beating heart surgery

Medical robot guided by AI/ML computer vision on 3D ultrasound (P. Thienphrapa, R. Taylor, A. Popovic, P. Kazanzides)

We develop a minimally invasive surgical robot to extract foreign objects from the heart. The system uses computer vision on 3D ultrasound video (aka trans-esophageal echocardiograms or TEE) to track the object as it flies around the chamber, then strategically guides a dexterous robotic device to capture it. [Project page]

Open source robot motion controller based on IEEE 1394 (FireWire)

Fly-by-wire electronics, da Vinci Research kit (dVRK) predecessor (P. Kazanzides, P. Thienphrapa, et al.)

While designing robots with many degrees of freedom (such as the snake robots above and below), we faced issues scaling the number of joints/axes due to cabling complexity. So we invented a fly-by-wire motion controller from scratch with an architecture that could scale over a high speed serial network—IEEE 1394.

This turned out to be more broadly useful, so we open sourced it. The electronics, FPGA/firmware, and software drivers/utilities led to the da Vinci Research Kit (dvrk) controller now used as a standard platform for surgical robotics research worldwide. [Project page]

Snake robot for remote surgery

Snake robot for remote surgery

This teleoperated snake robot is designed to help surgeons perform dexterous tasks in confined spaces. A surgical assistant designed for minimally invasive surgery of the throat and upper airways, it features two miniature manipulators that operate through a single entry port. [Project page]

Aerospace, astronomy, and beyond

Robotic guidance of an endoscope for beating heart surgery

Endoscope robot guided by AI/ML computer vision (A. Popovic, P. Thienphrapa, et al.)

We use computer vision and visual servoing to robotically maneuver an endoscope based on features extracted from the scope. This can help surgeons navigate the unintuitive scenes caused by the small and rotated endoscopic fields of view. We design methods to be efficient yet robust against imperfect camera calibration. [BioRob paper]

High performance, fault tolerant computing for the James Webb Space Telescope

Embedded computing systems for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) (C. Liu, P. Thienphrapa, et al.)

To improve sensitivity to faint signals, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) features an extra large reflector that is collaped to fit into contemporary launch vehicles. When deployed, the reflector segments must be actively and precisely controlled to act as a single mirror in a dynamic disturbance environment. We explore parallel processor embedded computing architectures to achieve real-time control of a complex robotic structure. [Papers: ASME, CCCT]

Optimized and robust astronomical image processing and transmission

Computer vision for astronomical image processing and transmission (J. Dong, P. Thienphrapa, et al.)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is designed to collect vast quantities of high quality astronomical images. To facilitate efficient dissemination, we investigate image processing and transmission techniques that prioritize and packetize information content to maximize image quality under channel constraints. [Papers: SPIE1, SPIE2, SPIE3]

Miscellaneous memorable projects

  • Standalone MP3 player: Developed an x86-based embedded system including microprocessor, controllers, DRAM, storage, etc.; drew schematics, timing diagrams; wire-wrapped circuits; programmed in assembly—from the infamous EE 52.
  • Operating systems: Wrote kernel-level software on Linux including task queues, scheduler policies, and a filesystem driver loaded as a kernel module—from the lesser known but equally painful CS 134a (now defunct—too painful perhaps).
  • Intelligent ICU: Integrated multiple bedside monitoring devices in an intensive care setting by bringing disjoint datastreams into one computer, allowing for intelligent and automated assessment of patient condition. Our group won best course project, in case you like that sort of thing.
  • Other fond memories: Projects involving computer architecture, analog/digital circuit design, PCB and VLSI layout, all orders of coding: network, FPGA, µC/µP, embedded, mobile (pre-iPhone though), device driver, UI, scripting, even a bit of web and database. (I don't claim 'current' expertise in all of these things...)

Activities

Volunteering

  • Philips Emergency Response Team—On call for emergency assistance, maintain training in First Aid CPR
  • LA Inner City Games—Build and run a non-profit computer lab; mentor youths with educational software
  • Tutor and mentor local neighborhood kids in K–12 in reading, math, and science
  • STEM outreach—Help organize, run, and judge youth robotic competitions; lead lab tours; host visiting students; run open house demos and talks

Scientific reviewer - Regularly referee submissions to premier journals and conferences in robotics, computer vision, and medical image guidance (winning Best Reviewer for MICCAI 2021, 2020, and IPCAI 2017)

  • ICRA – IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
  • BioRob – IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics
  • MICCAI – Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Interventions
  • IJCARS – International Journal for Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
  • MVAP – Machine Vision and Applications
  • JMRR – Journal of Medical Robotics Research
  • IPCAI – Information Processing in Computer Assisted Interventions

Events

Athletic

  • Intercollegiate (NCAA Division III) soccer, track & field (4 years)
  • Interscholastic (Los Angeles City Section) soccer, track & field, cross-country (4, 3, 2 years)
  • Intramural basketball, soccer, track & field (great exercise w/multiple championships)

Achievements

Professional honors

  • IPCAI Best Reviewer Award
  • MICCAI Outstanding Reviewer Award (2x)
  • Philips Accelerator Entrepreneurial Team Award
  • Philips Innovation X-Challenge 3rd Prize

Graduate fellowships

  • Philips Research (4y)
  • Transportation Research Board (travel)
  • Cal State LA Graduate Fellowship (2y)
  • Cal State LA Engineering Ben Levine

Undergrad scholarships

  • Robert C. Byrd Honors (statewide, 4y)
  • Los Angeles Inner City Games (citywide)
  • Los Angeles Unified School District Employees
  • John Wooley Memorial (student-athlete)

Athletic distinctions

  • Finalist, Los Angeles City Section triple jump
  • Captain, varsity soccer and cross-country teams
  • All-Conference, NCAA Div. III 4x100m and 4x400m relays
  • Coaches' Award, scholastic track & field and collegiate soccer
  • Athlete of the Week, scholastic and collegiate
  • Champion, Caltech high jump competition

Honorable mentions

  • Admitted to NASA/JPL Planetary Science Summer School
  • Mock Trial team ranked #1 in Los Angeles County (at one point)
  • Best Project: Intelligent ICU (600.446: Computer Integrated Surgery)
  • Al Bundy award for over-representation of high school sports accomplishments
Paul's track & field highlights by Ian Shapiro (1-2) and Ely Ruiz (3)

Reports

Publications

  1. P. Thienphrapa, C. Lundin, X. He, M.Y. Jung, P. U-Thainual, and C. Kung, “5 lessons for success as a surgical robotics engineer,” in IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) Mechanisms and Design Workshop, Las Vegas, NV, Oct 2020.
  2. P. Thienphrapa, T. Bydlon, A. Chen, P. Vagdargi, N. Varble, D. Stanton, and A. Popovic, “Interactive endoscopy: A next-generation, streamlined user interface for lung surgery navigation,” in Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), vol. 11768, pp. 83–91, Shenzhen, China, Oct 2019.
  3. P. Thienphrapa, P. Vagdargi, A. Chen, and D. Stanton, “User centric device registration for streamlined workflows in surgical navigation systems,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 2641–2647, Montreal, Canada, May 2019.
  4. P. Thienphrapa, B. Mory, A. Panse, V. Pai Raikar, A. Torjesen, and D. Schulman, “Basic principles for integrating next generation technologies into surgical workflows,” in ICRA Next Generation Surgery Workshop, May 2019.
  5. P. Thienphrapa, B. Mory, A. Panse, V. Pai Raikar, A. Torjesen, and D. Schulman, “Usability in surgical technology: Finding research questions in practical problems,” in ICRA Industry Forum, May 2019.
  6. P. Thienphrapa, T. Bydlon, A. Chen, and A. Popovic, “Evaluation of surface feature persistence during lung surgery,” in Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Oct 2018.
  7. P. Vagdargi, P. Thienphrapa, A. Chen, and T. Bydlon, “Towards augmented reality for lung surgery,” in National Center for Image Guided Therapy Workshop, Boston, MA, Oct 2018.
  8. P. Thienphrapa, A. Popovic, and R. Taylor, “Guidance of a high dexterity robot under 3D ultrasound for minimally invasive retrieval of foreign bodies from a beating heart,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 4869–4874, Hong Kong, China, May 2014.
  9. P. Thienphrapa, A. Popovic, and R. Taylor, “3D ultrasound-guided retrieval of foreign bodies from a beating heart using a dexterous surgical robot,” in Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, London, UK, Jun 2013.
  10. P. Thienphrapa, B. Ramachandran, H. Elhawary, A. Popovic, and R. Taylor, “Intraoperative analysis of locations for 3D ultrasound-guided capture of foreign bodies from a beating heart,” in Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, London, UK, Jul 2012.
  11. P. Thienphrapa, B. Ramachandran, R. Taylor, and A. Popovic, “A system for 3D ultrasound-guided robotic retrieval of foreign bodies from a beating heart,” in IEEE RAS/EMBS Int. Conf. on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), pp. 743–748, Rome, Italy, Jun 2012.
  12. P. Thienphrapa, B. Ramachandran, H. Elhawary, R. Taylor, and A. Popovic, “Multiple capture locations for 3D ultrasound-guided robotic retrieval of moving bodies from a beating heart,” in SPIE 8316, Medical Imaging 2012: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, pp. 831619, San Diego, CA, Feb 2012.
  13. B. Ramachandran, P. Thienphrapa, A. Jain, and A. Popovic, “Tracking using 3D ultrasound for guiding cardiac interventions,” in Int. Conf. on Biomedical Engineering (ICBME), Manipal, India, Dec 2011.
  14. P. Thienphrapa and P. Kazanzides, “Design of a scalable real-time robot controller and application to a dexterous manipulator,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Biomimetics (RoBio), pp. 2295–2300, Phuket, Thailand, Dec 2011.
  15. P. Thienphrapa, H. Elhawary, B. Ramachandran, D. Stanton, and A. Popovic, “Tracking and characterization of fragments in a beating heart using 3D ultrasound for interventional guidance,” in Int. Conf. on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), vol. 6891, pp. 211–218, Toronto, Canada, Sep 2011.
  16. A. Popovic and P. Thienphrapa, “An approach to robotic guidance of an uncalibrated endoscope in beating heart surgery,” in IEEE RAS/EMBS Int. Conf. on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), pp. 106–113, Tokyo, Japan, Sep 2010.
  17. P. Thienphrapa and P. Kazanzides, “A scalable system for real-time control of dexterous surgical robots,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications (TePRA), pp. 16–22, Boston, MA, Nov 2009.
  18. P. Thienphrapa and P. Kazanzides, “A distributed I/O low-level controller for highly-dexterous snake robots,” in IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), pp. 9–12, Baltimore, MD, Nov 2008.
  19. P. Kazanzides and P. Thienphrapa, “Centralized processing and distributed I/O for robot control,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Technologies for Practical Robot Applications (TePRA), pp. 84–88, Boston, MA, Nov 2008.
  20. P. Thienphrapa and J. Dong, “A robust transmission system for astronomical images over error-prone links,” in SPIE Newsroom, Dec 2006. [DOI]
  21. P. Thienphrapa, H. Boussalis, C. Liu, K. Rad, and J. Dong, “Implementation of a robust transmission system for astronomical images over error-prone links,” in SPIE 6391, Multimedia Systems and Applications IX, pp. 63910G, Boston, MA, Oct 2006.
  22. P. Thienphrapa, H. Boussalis, C. Liu, K. Rad, J. Dong, “Content-based retransmission with error concealment for astronomical images,” in SPIE 6015, Multimedia Systems and Applications VIII, pp. 60150J, Boston, MA, Oct 2005.
  23. S. Fallorina, P. Thienphrapa, R. Luna, V. Khuong, H. Boussalis, C. Liu, J. Dong, K. Rad, and W. Ho, “A fault-tolerant distributed data flow architecture for real-time decentralized control,” in Int. Conf. on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO), pp. 109–115, Barcelona, Spain, Sep 2005.
  24. H. Boussalis, C. Liu, K. Rad, J. Dong, S. Fallorina, P. Thienphrapa, and J. Roberts, “Integrated embedded architectures and parallel algorithms for a decentralized control system,” in IEEE Int. Sym. on Intelligent Control (ISIC), Mediterranean Conf. on Control and Automation, pp. 1567–1572, Limassol, Cyprus, Jun 2005.
  25. J. Roberts, H. Boussalis, C. Liu, J. Dong, K. Rad, P. Thienphrapa, Z. Purnajo, and S. Fallorina, “Efficient real-time parallel signal processing for decentralized control using group-pipelined scheduling,” in Information Systems: New Generations Conference (ISNG), Las Vegas, NV, Nov 2004.
  26. S. Fallorina, H. Boussalis, C. Liu, K. Rad, J. Dong, D. Nasser, and P. Thienphrapa, “A generic pipelined task scheduling algorithm for fault-tolerant decentralized control of a segmented telescope testbed,” in ASME Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (CIE), vol. 4, pp. 493–500, Salt Lake City, UT, Sep 2004.
  27. P. Thienphrapa, S. Fallorina, Z. Purnajo, E. Prince, H. Boussalis, C. Liu, K. Rad, J. Dong, and Y. Zhao, “A generalized fault-tolerant pipelined task scheduling for decentralized control of large segmented systems,” in Int. Conf. on Computing, Communications, and Control Technologies (CCCT), Austin, TX, Aug 2004.

Patents

Granted

  1. P. Thienphrapa, N. Kahya, O. Nempont, P. Cathier, M. Flexman, T. Bydlon, and R. Florent, “Animated position display of an OSS interventional device,” US11887236B2, Jan 2024.
  2. P. Thienphrapa, M. Flexman, T. Bydlon, A. Popovic, M. Balicki, G. Toporek, and A. Patriciu, “Robotic tool control,” US11602403B2, JP7401429B2, Dec 2023.
  3. P. Thienphrapa, B. Ramachandran, A. Reinstein, and D. Stanton, “Registration system for medical navigation and method of operation thereof,” CN108472082B, EP3397183B1, US11826107B2, Nov 2023.
  4. P. Thienphrapa, B. Ramachandran, M. Flexman, and N. Kahya, “Medical navigation system employing optical position sensing and method of operation thereof,” JP6907247B2, US11224405B2, CN109982656B, EP3478207B1, Aug 2023.
  5. M. Flexman, M. Marell, and P. Thienphrapa, “Balloon catheter comprising shape sensing optical fibers,” EP3484572B1, JP7059247B2, CN109475725B, US11730931B2, Aug 2023.
  6. T. Bydlon, A. Ekin, P. Thienphrapa, W. Van Den Boomen, M. Flexman, M. Van Der Mark, and A. Popovic, “Systems and methods for determining the length of a non-shape-sensed interventional device with a shape-sensed guidewire and determining a state of the guidewire with respect to an interventional device,” US11346730B2, JP7292205B2, CN110049741B, Jul 2023.
  7. M. Flexman, P. Thienphrapa, T. Bydlon, A. Patriciu, and A. Panse, “OSS guidance and monitoring system, controller, and method,” JP7304814B2, Jul 2023.
  8. P. Thienphrapa, M. Flexman, T. Bydlon, A. Popovic, M. Balicki, G. Toporek, and A. Patriciu, “Autonomous X-ray control for robotic navigation,” JP7191098B2, US11648071B2, May 2023.
  9. P. Thienphrapa, T. Bydlon, M. Flexman, A. Patriciu, A. Panse, and S. Kyne, “Systems and methods for determining the position of a non-shape-sensed guidewire with a shape-sensed catheter and for visualizing the guidewire,” US11344222B2, EP3554367B1, Mar 2023.
  10. A. Ekin, M. Flexman, P. Thienphrapa, and W. Van Den Boomen, “OSS foreshortening detection systems, controllers and methods,” JP7216655B2, US11602396B2, Mar 2023.
  11. P. Thienphrapa, P. Cathier, A. Panse, M. Flexman, T. Bydlon, and N. Kahya, “Torsional deployment detection of a vascular therapy,” US11589943B2, Feb 2023.
  12. P. Thienphrapa and A. Popovic, “Registration of a surgical image acquisition device using contour signatures,” US11564748B2, Jan 2023.
  13. T. Bydlon, P. Thienphrapa, and M. Flexman, “Medical navigation system using shape-sensing device and method of operation thereof,” EP3565482B1, JP7167030B2, US11547318B2, Jan 2023.
  14. A. Panse, T. Bydlon, P. Thienphrapa, M. Flexman, A. Patriciu, and S. Kyne, “Shape sensing of multiple over-the-wire devices,” US11547489B2, Jan 2023.
  15. A. Popovic, P. Thienphrapa, and G. Toporek, “Image-based fusion of endoscopic image and ultrasound images,” EP3463032B1, CN109219384B, JP7133474B2, Sep 2022.
  16. X. He, A. Popovic, M. Flexman, P. Thienphrapa, D. Noonan, R. Kroon, and A. Reinstein, “Shape sensing for orthopedic navigation,” JP6713987B2, US11219487B2, Jan 2022.
  17. M. Flexman, A. Reinstein, X. He, P. Thienphrapa, D. Dijkkamp, and D. Noonan, “Triggering with optical shape sensing fiber,” US11191593B2, Dec 2021.
  18. P. Thienphrapa, B. Ramachandran, and A. Popovic, “Automatic online registration between a robot and images,” RU2624107C2, EP2745268B1, US9984437B2, CN103797512B, JP6491476B2, BR112014005451B1, Nov 2021.
  19. G. Cole, P. Thienphrapa, M. Flexman, D. Noonan, and N. Kahya, “System and method for tracking and determining characteristics of inflatable medical instruments using fiber-optical realshape data,” EP3313498B1, JP6739454B2, US11039890B2, Jun 2021.
  20. A. Popovic and P. Thienphrapa, “Uncalibrated visual servoing using real-time velocity optimization,” US8934003B2, EP2521507B1, JP5814938B2, US9205564B2, CN102791214B, Jan 2016.

Pending

  1. A. Popovic and P. Thienphrapa, “Robotic control of an oblique endoscope for FOV images,” WO2012001549A1, Priority Jun 2010.
  2. P. Thienphrapa and X. He, “System and method for registering a structure using fiber-optical realshape data,” WO2016207163A1, Priority Jun 2015.
  3. T. Bydlon, P. Thienphrapa, and A. Torjesen, “Registering optical shape sensing device with three-dimensional representation of region of interest,” WO2020002176A2, Priority Jun 2018.
  4. T. Bydlon, P. Thienphrapa, and A. Chen, “Dynamic interventional three-dimensional model deformation,” WO2020182997A1, Priority Mar 2019.
  5. T. Bydlon, P. Thienphrapa, and A. Chen, “Intraoperative imaging-based surgical navigation,” WO2020234409A1, Priority May 2019.
  6. P. Thienphrapa, T. Bydlon, A. Chen, P. Vagdargi, and W. McNamara, “Interactive endoscopy for intraoperative virtual annotation in VATS and minimally invasive surgery,” WO2021048326A1, Priority Sep 2019.
  7. T. Bydlon, S. Kyne, and P. Thienphrapa, “Dynamic tissue imagery updating,” WO2021074422A1, Priority Oct 2019.
  8. P. Thienphrapa, M. Balicki, G. Toporek, A. Popovic, A. Patriciu, and S. Kyne, “Guided anatomical manipulation for endoscopic procedures,” WO2021115857A1, Priority Dec 2019.
  9. P. Thienphrapa, S. Kyne, M. Flexman, A. Jain, S. Li, K. Vaidya, and M. Balicki, “Intuitive control interface for a robotic tee probe using a hybrid imaging-elastography controller,” WO2021115905A1, Priority Dec 2019.
  10. P. Thienphrapa, M. Balicki, and W. Mcnamara, “Systems and methods for guiding an ultrasound probe,” WO2021115944A1, Priority Dec 2019.
  11. P. Thienphrapa, S. Kyne, M. Flexman, A. Jain, S. Li, K. Vaidya, and M. Balicki, “Hybrid robotic-image plane control of a tee probe,” WO2021116051A1, Priority Dec 2019.
  12. M. Balicki and P. Thienphrapa, “Systems and methods for guiding an ultrasound probe,” WO2021116474A1, Priority Dec 2019.